- Contact your veterinarian immediately.
- Animals with evidence of bleeding should be strictly confined to prevent injury and further bleeding.
- Your veterinarian may instruct you to induce vomiting, however, do not induce vomiting unless instructed to.
- Take note of the time that the rat bait was ingested.
- If possible, provide a sample of the product ingested, including any packaging and package inserts, to your veterinarian to aid in identification of the toxin and estimation of the dose received.
Onset time of clinical signs is 1-7 days after ingestion
- Pale mucous membranes (due to anaemia)
- Difficulty breathing (dyspnoea) (due to bleeding into the chest cavity)
- Increased respiratory rate (tachypnoea) (due to bleeding into the chest cavity)
- Cough (due to bleeding into the lungs; may cough up blood)
- Lameness or difficulty walking (due to bleeding into joints)
- Nose bleeding (epistaxis)
- Blood in urine or stool
- Distended abdomen (due to bleeding into the abdomen)
EFFECTS OF TOXICITY
Anticoagulant rodenticides interfere with the liver’s ability to recycle vitamin K, which is necessary for the production of clotting factors. As the animal cannot continually produce clotting factors, they become depleted leading to spontaneous haemorrhage.
Veterinary care may involve administration of activated charcoal and intravenous fluids to support cardiovascular function. In severe cases, blood transfusions may be required. Blood clotting tests may be performed to determine the severity and progression of the condition. Vitamin K may be administered for some time depending on the type of bait ingested.
BSAVA (2012) BSAVA/VPIS Guide to Common Canine and Feline Poisons. Gloucester: BSAVA.Dunayer E (2011) Rodenticides. In: Small Animal Toxicology Essentials ed. RH Poppenga and SM Gwaltney-Brant. London: Wiley-Blackwell. Pp143-144.